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Asian J Kinesiol > Volume 18(2); 2016 > Article
The Official Journal of the Korean Academy of Kinesiology 2016;18(2):81-91.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15758/jkak.2016.18.2.81    Published online May 31, 2016.
Effects of Exercise Training with Instrument on Abdominal and Thigh Fat, Physical Fitness, and Obesity-related Cytokines in Obese Elderly Subjects.
Ki-Jin Kim
Keimyung University
Correspondence:  Ki-Jin Kim,
Email: kjk744@kmu.ac.kr
Received: 24 April 2016   • Accepted: 25 May 2016
Abstract
PURPOSE
The present study examined old male adults to compare physical fitness and cytokine concentrations between obese and non-obese men, and observed post-exercise training changes.
METHODS
Subjects were eighty old male adults, and were divided into an obese group (n =40) and a non-obese group (n=40) based on a BMI of 25 kg/m 2 . Body composition, muscular strength, cardiopulmonary function, blood TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations were compared between obese group and non-obese group, and then the changes in these parameters were compared after a regular 12-week exercise training.
RESULTS
The overall abdominal fat, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat areas were significantly larger values in the obese group (p<.05). The muscle-to-fat area ratios in both the abdomen and thigh were significantly lower in the obese group (p<.05). The abdominal and thigh fat areas significantly decreased after exercise training in both groups (p<.05), and the muscle-to-fat area ratios in both the abdomen and thigh significantly increased in both groups (p<.05). The obese group had significant higher blood IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations (p<.05), and significant lower grip strength per kilogram of body weight, PEI obtained from the Harvard step test, and sit-and-reach test score (p<.05). Both groups had significantly enhanced blood TNF-α concentration, grip strength, back muscular strength, and grip or back muscular strengths per kilogram of body weight after exercise training (p<.05). Post-exercise reduction in TNF-α was inversely correlated with increased muscle-to-fat area ratio in the thigh and increased back muscular strength (p<.05).
CONCLUSIONS
The obese group exhibited relative reductions in muscle mass and muscle strength, and had higher blood IL-6 and TNF-α concentration than those in the non-obese group. However, the findings of this study also indicate that these phenomena could be prevented by exercise training. Post-exercise training reduction in blood TNF-α level is significantly correlated with reduction in body fat, increased muscle-to-fat area ratios in the abdomen and thigh, and increased muscular strength. Based on this finding, TNF-α level could be used as an important inflammatory marker related to sarcopenic obesity that occurs during aging.
Keywords: elderly subjects, exercise training, body composition, physical fitness, cytokine


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