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Asian J Kinesiol > Volume 19(3); 2017 > Article
The Official Journal of the Korean Academy of Kinesiology 2017;19(3):1-13.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15758/jkak.2017.19.3.1    Published online July 30, 2017.
Changes In Muscle Biomarkers Following Swimming Exercise in Streptozotoxin-induced Rats.
Young-Sik Kim, Storm Reid, Eun-Kee Park, Yeh-Chan Ahn, Byunghwan Jeon
Kosin University
Kyungsung University
Kosin University
Pukyong National University
Kyungsung University
Correspondence:  Byunghwan Jeon,
Email: mooaworld@ks.ac.kr
Received: 22 February 2017   • Accepted: 20 July 2017
Abstract
PURPOSE
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of swimming exercise in diabetic atrophy by monitoring changes in biomarkers associated with musculoskeletal growth and abnormalities.
METHODS
Ninety-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control plus exercise group (CO+Ex), control and no exercise group (CO+No Ex), diabetes plus exercise group (DM+Ex) and diabetes and no exercise group (DM+No Ex). Swimming exercise was implemented for 60 min/day, 5 day/week for a total of eight weeks. Muscle strength and atrophy biomarkers as well as muscle morphology were compared at the first, second, fourth and eighth week of experimentation.
RESULTS
ACE levels were significantly higher in the DM groups (p<.05), however swimming exercise did not significantly affect ACE levels. Irisin levels were significantly higher in the DM and DM+Ex groups compared to the CON, in week one (p<.05), and greater in the DM+Ex group at week two compared to CON+Ex (p<.05), but swimming did not significantly affect irisin levels over the eight-week period in DM rats. In terms of muscle damage, Myl3 expression was unchanged in the CON groups, but significantly higher in the DM+Ex group compared to the CON+Ex group (p<.05). AST was found to be in higher levels in the DM+No Ex group, compared to CON and CON+Ex (p<.05); and DM+Ex group, compared to the CON+Ex group at weeks one, four and eight (p<.05). Tibialis anterior muscle fibers were thicker in the DM+Ex group compared to DM+No Ex, but only at week four (p<.05). Otherwise, no other notable differences were recorded in muscle morphology.
CONCLUSIONS
These results suggest that swimming exercise alone may not be sufficient to induce muscle strength and/or protective effects against muscle atrophy associated with diabetes mellitus. However, this mode of exercise may be considered safe by not compounding the deteriorative effects of this disease.
Keywords: atrophy, AST, ACE, irisin, myl3
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