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The Official Journal of the Korean Academy of Kinesiology 2010;13(1):43-53.
Published online January 30, 2011.
Reliability and Validity Study of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire
Na-Ra Kim, Chang-Il Mun
Korea University
Correspondence:  Na-Ra Kim,
Email: tantara2@korea.ac.kr
Received: 25 September 2010   • Accepted: 26 October 2010

Mental toughness had recently been suggested to be an important characteristic for athletic success, and yet it remains one of the least understood terms in sport psychology. Few attempts have been made to develop and validate inventories that profile and measure mental toughness among athletic cohorts. This research aimed to refine the priorly developed Mental Toughness Questionnaire(MTQ48) and to assess its psychometric properties across Korean elite athletes.
MTQ48, CSAI-2, Self-esteem Scale and Hardiness Scale were administered to 101 athletes. Exploratory factor analysis was used to explore the factor structure of a pool of items designed to capture the key components of mental toughness in Korean sport cohorts.
The Korean version of MTQ48 revealed a 4-factor structure: "control", "commitment", "challenge", and "confidence". In addition, the result showed relatively high internal consistency, adequate convergent, and discriminant validity of the MTQ48.
These results suggested that the Korean version of MTQ48 has been a useful scale that measures mental toughness in Korean athletes. The implications and limitations of the present study and suggestions for the future research were discussed.
Keywords: Mental toughness, Performance pressure, Competition anxiety


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